Canoe Theory

Canoe Theory
Canoe Theory

NEW The Canoe Theory A Business Success Strategy for Leaders and Associates
NEW The Canoe Theory A Business Success Strategy for Leaders and Associates
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The Canoe Theory: A Business Success Strategy for Leaders and Associates

The Canoe Theory: A Business Success Strategy for Leaders and Associates


The Canoe Theory compares an organization and its members to a canoe and its crew. Like canoes, businesses need every member to paddle" together for greater success. Today, more than ever, employers and employees feel disconnected from one another. The Canoe Theory provides solutions to difficult challenges business leaders and employees alike face and details how to bridge the gap and "paddle" to...

The Canoe Theory

The Canoe Theory

"""The Canoe Theory compares an organization and its members to a canoe and its crew. Like canoes, businesses need every member to ""paddle"" together for greater success. Today, more than ever, employers and employees feel disconnected from one another. The Canoe Theory provides solutions to difficult challenges business leaders and employees alike face and details how to bridge the gap and ""pad...

The Canoe Theory

The Canoe Theory

Sales and Leadership book...

Junkanoo Band - Key West

Junkanoo Band - Key West


Even in the 21st century, the evolution of the word Junkanoo remains uncertain. One popularized theory suggests that the word is derived from an African prince, John Canoe, who gained control of an English fort in the seventeenth century. In the Bahamas, the Junkanoo parade was celebrated by slaves who were allowed three days holiday each year during the Christmas season and would thus, while cost...

Thuja plicata

Taxonomy and name

Thuja plicata shoot with mature cones

The Western Red Cedar is not really a cedar (Cedrus) but belongs to the family Cupressaceae, with cypress trees. It is by many names, Pacific red cedar, British Columbia cedar, canoe cedar, cedar giant, or just red Cedar known. Plicata, the species name is derived from the Greek word for "folded into plaits," a reference to the pattern of its small leaves. It is one home of two arborvitae (Thuja) in North America. Arbor Vitae is Latin for "tree of life". Incidentally, Indians of the West Coast on the cedar as a "long life maker.


The Western Red Cedar is a large tree in the range between 40 to 150 feet (12-45 Meters) high and up to 22 feet (7 meters) in trunk diameter. Trees grow in the open issue of a crown, reaching the ground, whereas densely spaced trees together only shows a crown at the top, where the light can reach the leaves. Some people can live almost a thousand years, if not more. Certain samples on the Queen Charlotte Islands are about 900 years old.

Quinault Lake Red Cedar, also known as "The Hobbit Tree", is the largest Western Red Cedar in the world

The Quinault Lake Red Cedar is the largest known Western Red Cedar in the world with a timber volume of 500 cubic meters (17,700 cu ft). By comparison, the largest known Tree, called a Giant Sequoia General Sherman, has a volume of 1,480 cubic meters (52300 ft cu). Near the north-west of Lake Quinault north of Aberdeen bank, Washington, about 34 km from the Pacific Ocean, the Quinault Lake Red Cedar 55m high with a diameter of 6.04 m (Van Pelt, 2002). A red cedar over 74m high and 800 years old stood in Cathedral Iceland Grove on Vancouver, British Columbia, before being set on fire and destroyed by vandals in 1972. [Edit]

The foliage forms flat sprays with scale-like Leaves in opposite pairs, with successive pairs at 90 to each. The foliage sprays are green above and green marked with stomatal bands below white. The cones are slender, 1520 mm long and 45 mm wide, with 8-12 thin, overlapping scales.

Thujaplicin, a chemical substance is found in old trees and serves as a kind of natural Fungicide, making the wood from rotting. This effect lasts for about a century after the tree has fallen. However thujaplicin found only in older trees, and young trees, which is not the chemical often red at an early stage, so that some trees grow with a somewhat hollow, rotten trunk.

Distribution and habitat

The Western Red Cedar comes from the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada, from southern Alaska and British Columbia south to northwest California and inland to western Montana. Pollen analysis and carbon-14 dating would seem to indicate that the tree grew only at the lower Fraser Valley about 6,600 years old. There thrives and almost half of the vegetation made in the area 500 years ago. Currently, Western Red Cedar contains about twenty percent of the region's flora.

Western Red Cedar is one of the most common trees in the Pacific Northwest, and is associated with Douglas-fir and western hemlock in most places where it grows. It is the height Range from sea level up to 1370m displayed above sea level. In addition to a lush forests and mountains growing western red cedar is also a riparian tree, growing in many forested swamps and stream banks in the range. The tree is shade tolerant, and able to reproduce under dense shade. It has a dense, straight grain and a few Branches.


Canadian Western Red Cedar robe in the National Assembly for Wales

The soft reddish wood is prized for its pronounced Appearance, flavor and its high natural resistance to decay, a large scale for outdoor construction in the form of posts, decking, shingles and siding used. It is cultivated as an ornamental tree, to a limited extent in forestry and plantations for screens and hedges. It has established with other temperate zones, including Western Europe, Australia (at least as far north as Sydney), New Zealand, the eastern United States and the higher elevations of Hawaii. It is also the line units and chests are used believed for his sharp aromatic oils to prevent moth larvae and carpet, damage the cloth by eating wool and similar fibers can. This is effective in a properly constructed red cedar chest (sometimes entirely cedar), because the oils are limited by shellac and leather seals. A keep tightly closed red cedar chest its pungent odor for many decades, sometimes more than a century. Its light weight, strength and dark, warm sound make make it a popular choice for guitar soundboards.

Role in indigenous societies

Western Red Cedar has an extensive history of use by the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest coast from Oregon to Southeast Alaska. Some northwest coast tribes refer to themselves as "people of the red cedar" because of their extensive dependence on the tree for basic materials. The cedar wood is for the construction of houses, totem poles were used, and crafted in many properties, including masks, utensils, boxes, crates, tools, canoes, vessels and ceremonial objects. Roots and bark were baskets, ropes, clothing, blankets and rings used.


From 2009, the three largest known Western Red Cedar, are:

Quinalt Cedar Lake (Lake Quinalt Rain Forest Olympic National Park) 17 650 cubic feet

Cheewhat Cedar Lake (west coast of Vancouver Iceland-Pacific Rim National Park) 15 870 cubic feet

Nolan Cedar Creek (Nolan Creek) 15 330 cubic feet


A large number of archaeological finds point to the continued use of red Cedar in native societies. Tools for woodworking dating from 50008000 years, as carved antlers, were found in shell middens at the Glenrose site near Vancouver. In Yuquot, on the west coast of Vancouver, dating tools 30004000 years old, were found. The Musqueam site, even in the vicinity of Vancouver, led Bark baskets in five different designs woven with rope and ships of up to 3000 years. With Pitt River were axes and baskets around 2900 years dated. 1,000 year old artifacts of wood were excavated on the east coast of Vancouver Iceland.

A legend among the Coast Salish peoples describes the origins of Western Red Cedar. In this Legend there was a generous man who gave the people what they wanted. If the Great Spirit saw this, he explained that when he died generous man, a large red cedar grows where he is buried, and that the cedar will be useful for all people, the provision of its roots for baskets, bark for clothing and wood for shelter.


The wood was worked primarily with the shovel, the preference over all other instruments was, even those introduced by European settlers. Alexander Walker, an ensign on the fur trade ship Captain Cook reported that the indigenous peoples used an elbow adze, which they brought on new tools of the Europeans, like the saw or ax rated go so far to change trading tools back in a shovel. Tools were usually made of stone, bone, obsidian, or a harder wood such as hemlock. A variety of hand-mouth, wedges, chisels and knives used were. Excavations at Ozette in Washington State did turn up iron tools for almost 800 years old, well before European contact. When James Cook made the area observed he that almost all the tools were made of iron. There has been speculation about the origin of iron tools, some are theories include shipwrecks from East Asia, or possible contact with iron-using cultures from Siberia, as indicated, found in the more advanced wood processing in the northern tribes like the Tlingit.


Harvesting red cedar required some ceremony, and included reconciliation of the tree spirits, and those of surrounding trees. In particular, many people express asked about the tree and his brothers not to fall or drop heavy branches on the harvester, a situation that in a number of different stories of people who mentioned is not sufficient care. Some professional loggers of Indian descent have mentioned that they calm and quiet propitiation of trees that fell they offer the following in this tradition.

Felling of large trees like red cedar before the introduction of steel tools was a complex and time consuming technique. Typically the bark was removed around the trunk of the tree above the buttresses, and then a certain amount of cutting and splitting with stone axes and mangled would happen, the Create a broad cut triangular. The area above and below the cut would be a mix of damp moss and clay as a firebreak, and then covered the cut would be packed with tinder and small kindling and slowly burned. The process of cutting and burning would, until the tree was mostly deputy came through, and then carefully Maintenance of the fire would the tree in the best direction for handling. This process could take several days, and constant rotation of workers was involved, so the fire burning by day and night, often in a remote and inhospitable place.

A pole outside a six-post house at the University of British Columbia

Once the tree was like the work had just begun, as it then stripped and dragged down to the coast. When the tree was then often divided into sections canoes would be worked into rough canoe shapes become pre-shipment, but when it comes to a totem pole or building materials in the round it would be drawn around the village to be used. Many Trees are still in the traditional way for the use of felled like totem poles and canoes, especially from artists that goes with the help of modern tools to feel the expense of the traditional spirit of art. Non-traditionalists simply buy cedar logs or timber for mills or lumber yards, a practice commonly followed by most of the work in smaller sizes, such as masks and staves.

As cases such an extraordinary amount of work required, though only planks for housing were needed, they would be living on the tree to be split. The bark was stripped off and saved, and two sections were at the ends made of planks. Would then hit wedges into the sides and the planks slowly split off the side of the tree. Trees that are harvested still visible in some places in the Rain forest, recorded with obvious pieces of their pages. Such trees usually continue to grow very well, as red cedar is resistant to decay. Planking by a variety of methods, including weighing them upright stones, lashing them together with rope, or forcing them between a series of bets.

Red cedar is used to huge monoxyla canoes, in which the men went out to sea to make driving harpoon whales and trade. One of these boats (38 feet, crafts excavated a century ago), was purchased in 1901 by Captain John Voss, an adventurer. He gave her the name Tilikum (boot) ("friend" in Chinook jargon), manipulated and she led them in a hectic three-year journey from British Columbia to London.

Red cedar branches are very flexible and have good strength. They were drawn out and could be strong cords for fishing line, rope cores, twine, and for other purposes where bark cord was not strong enough or fray. Both the Branches and bark rope have been replaced by modern fiber and nylon rope under the Aboriginal peoples of north-west coast when the bark is still in use for other purposes specified above.


Illustration women prefer bark of a tree, from Indian legends of Vancouver Iceland by Alfred Carmichael

The bark is easily accessible from live trees in long strips removed and harvested for the production of mats, ropes and cordage, basketry, rain hats, clothing and other soft goods. The Harvesting of bark must be performed with caution, because if the tree completely removed, will die there. To prevent this, the harvest usually only combine from the trees that were not stripped before. After harvesting, the tree is not used for the bark again, although it will be like later for wood. Stripping bark is usually a series of cuts at the base of the tree started about every buttresses, and the bark peeled up. To remove bark high, a pair of platforms be used to rope tightened around the tree, and the harvester climbs by alternating between them for their support. Since losing their lower branches of red cedar Like all high trees in the rain forest to do the harvesting machine climb 10 m or more in the tree can by this method. The harvested bark is folded and carried in backpacks. It can for some time as a form not grow in it are saved, and is moistened before unfolding and working conditions. It is then the desired length in the width divided and woven or twisted into shape. Bark harvesting was mostly done by women, despite the danger of climbing 10 meters up in the air, because they are the primary producers of goods bark. Today Bark rope is a lost art in many communities, even if they still practiced for decoration or art in a few places. Other uses of bark are still common for artistic or practical purposes.


Abcde ^ Stewart (1984), p. 22

^ From Stewart (1984), p. 24

^ Abcdef Stewart (1984), p. 26

^ Stewart (1984), p. 21

^ From Stewart (1984), p. 17-19

From c ^ Stewart (1984), p. 27

Abcd ^ Stewart (1984), p. 36

^ Stewart (1984), p. 39

^ From Stewart (1984), p. 37-38

^ Stewart (1984), p. 40

^ Stewart (1984), p. 42

^ Stewart (1984), p. 43

^ Stewart (1984), p. 116

^ Stewart (1984), p. 115

^ Stewart (1984), p. 113


Stewart, Hilary. (1984). Cedar: tree of life of the Indians of the Northwest Coast. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. ISBN 0-88894-437-3.

Van Pelt, R. (2001). Forest Giants of the Pacific coast. University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-98140-7.

External Links

Commons to: Thuja plicata

Conifer Specialist Group (1998). Thuja plicata. 2006th IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006th Retrieved on 12 May 2006.

Gymnosperm Database - Thuja plicata

USDA Plant Profile: Thuja plicata

Categories: IUCN Red List least concern species | Thuja | Trees of the northwestern United States | Trees of Alaska | Trees of British Columbia | Trees of California | Trees of Oregon | Construction | Trees of Idaho | Trees of Washington (U.S. state) | Trees mild maritime climate | Provincial symbols of British Columbia | Least concern plant hidden categories: All articles with blank statements | Article blank with statements from July 2007 About the Author

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